Thursday, October 31, 2019

International Contract jurisdiction hypothetical Essay

International Contract jurisdiction hypothetical - Essay Example breach of contract committed in Queensland, regardless of where the contract was made and whether or not the breach was preceded of accompanied by a breach...rendering impossible the performance of a part of the contract that ought to be performed in Queensland† (Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 1999 (124)(1)(i)). In this case, the rules probably will not give the court jurisdiction. The contract was not made in Queensland – the contract was executed in England. It also states that service is permitted if the contract is governed by the law of Queensland. The contract did not state which law governed, so this clause does not have effect. So, now the other two clauses must be examined – that service would be permitted if the breach of contract was committed in Queensland. Was the breach of contract committed in Queensland? Probably not. The breach occurred in England, as the consignment was packed in England, and the packing of the consignment was the cause of the damage. The other clause is that service is permitted when the contract is made by one or more parties carrying on business or residing in Queensland. The contract was executed by Global Freighting in England, and they do not reside in Queensland. However, they are carrying on business in Queensland, so this might be a basis for service. However, the term â€Å"carrying on business† is kind of vague – is it enough that Global Freighting made a contract with a Queensland company – would this be considered to be â€Å"carrying on business?† If this is not a basis for jurisdiction, then we need to look at other connecting factors. They are residence, domicile or presence of defendant in the courts jurisdiction (Akbarali v. Brent LBC). In this case, none of these connecting factors are present – defendant does not reside in Queensland, is not domiciled and has never been to Queensland. Therefore, connecting factors would not give Queensland jurisdiction either. Plus, the doctrine of

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Comparative Religions Essay Example for Free

Comparative Religions Essay Judaism began in Israel, 2000 BCE. Christianity began in the middle east it began about 2000 years ago. Christianity is the religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, or its beliefs and practices. Judaism is the monotheistic religion of the Jews, based on the laws revealed to Moses and recorded in the Torah. Christianity and Judaism are similar and different in many ways, Both Religions believe in Jesus, they have a lot different beliefs, Both religions have Bibles, Christians has the bible, Jews have The Torah. Both religions believe in Jesus. Both religions believed in him but the Christians believed he would come back and that he was very special, Jews did not think all the same as the Christians. Jews do not believe that Jesus was divine, the Son of God, or the Messiah prophesied in Jewish scriptures. He is seen as a false messiah, someone who claimed the mantle of the Messiah but who ultimately did not meet the requirements laid out in Jewish beliefs. Christians believe that Jesus will come back to Earth to save/protect them. Religions have their agreements and their disagreements. The religions have a lot of different beliefs. They have lists and lists of different beliefs of Christians and Jews. Some of those beliefs are, Judaism says that no human can ever die or atone for the sins of others and sins can only be atoned for by animal sacrifice or prayer and restitution. Whereas Christianity says that Jesus died for the sins of mankind. Judaism says that all humans are born pure, and innocent. Christians say that all humans are born with original sin. Jews say that no man gets a second coming and the Messiah will not need one. Christians say that Jesus will have a second coming. These are only a few of the many different beliefs. Comparisons of the two religions are they both have books basically â€Å"Bibles†, but there not both called bibles. For Christians it is a Bible for Judaism it is a Torah. They both hold basically the same things, Their beliefs. Now the information in the books are not completely the same. Because of the different beliefs. But the books are used for the same reason so people who follow the religion can worship their religion. Christianity and Judaism are very close religions but yet very different. They are the same because, Both Religions believe in Jesus, Both religions have Bibles, Christians has the bible, Jews have The Torah. They are also very different because they have a lot of different beliefs.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Care Theory for Adults With Learning Disabilities

Care Theory for Adults With Learning Disabilities Critically discuss care theory in relation to social work with adults with learning disabilities. Social work has undergone a radical transformation in the last two decades. Today ideas about the multi-layered nature of disabilities and the complexity of needs are commonplace in the public discourse on welfare and social work. People with learning disabilities and their carers and families have formulated their urgent demands upon society while academics and practitioners have supported this re-shaping of the social care agenda and the government has attempted to integrate the various challenges and interests in new and significant policy documentation such as Valuing People (2001). This essay will deal with three interrelated issues that are of particular importance to people with learning disabilities and their quality of life. It will (1) explore the relationship between care theory and the issues of ethical practice when dealing with adults with learning disabilities. It will look at the rules of engagement that have found their way into the various codes of practice for soci al work practitioners and the ethical problems that they may give rise to. And (3) it will consider the link between anti-discriminatory practice and the rights that service clients have and how these rights may influence the way in which practitioners may discharge their responsibilities throughout the social service sector. Within the confines of this essay, (1-3) will be examined through the following lens. Given the existing code of practice and policy stipulations, what could self-determination mean for people with learning disabilities? And how do ethical difficulties find their expression in particular practices of social work for adults with learning disabilities, such as person-centred planning and direct payments. There have been several attempts to regulate and standardise work practice for employees and employers of social work practitioners in the UK. These attempts have deep historical roots, such as the Hippocratic oath (Loewenberg 1992: 36). Yet the more recent attempt by the Scottish Councils to draw up a conclusive list of responsibilities and duties of social workers and their employers has been triggered by the desire to introduce reliability and transparency into a field of social care which has hitherto featured a plethora of often conflicting norms and standards. The code of practice sets out (for the first time) the expectations, obligations and duties under which social workers and their employers ought to operate. It is supposed to be the initial step in a broader process of standardisation of the social services (Codes 2001: 13). It echoes the definitions of the nature, aims and guiding principles of social work given in the Code of Practice by the British Association of Socia l Workers (BASW 1986 and Codes 2001). The various values that inform social work are human dignity and worth, social justice, service to humanity and integrity and competence of practitioners (BASW and CoP) In particular, the Code emphasises the right of individuals to control their lives and the obligation of social workers to promote the right to self-fulfilment by clients (Codes 2001: 15 and BASW 1986: 2). This agglomeration of values and norms that ought to inform social care practice however raises some serious questions when it comes to their application in the social work with people with learning disabilities. First of all, it is generally acknowledged by analysts of the service as well as by practitioners that the particular interpretation of the notion of self-determination is a culturally contingent idea. Loewenberg as well as Watson acknowledge that the ethical principles and rules of social work are derived from societal norms (Loewenberg 1992: 38; Watson 1985: 22). However, modern society encompasses a multitude of often conflicting social norms and it is this plurality of notions of a good life and standards of social agency which creates problems. The code explicitly urges social service professionals to take account of their client’s understanding of self-determination and individual independence. Yet, within a culturally diverse population, different notions of what is acceptable and desirable with respect to the independence of people with learning disabilities prevail. To promote independence of an adult or child with learning disabilities in a community that traditional ly places a fundamental emphasis on continuous care within the family can pose a particular dilemma to social workers. More generally, however, governmental policy and the codes of practice can produce significant problems for social care workers. The government has made inclusion one of the main policy priorities with regard to people with learning difficulties. Mainstreaming employment for individuals with learning disabilities is a pillar of this new approach. However, the competitiveness of the first labour market has traditionally represented a considerable barrier to finding viable employment for people with learning disabilities or emotional behaviour problems. Social care workers are tasked to identify problems that impact on the quality of life and decrease the chances of self-fulfilment for their clients. But often they are neither trained nor have access to resources in order to identify and put in place support programmes that ensure that adults with learning difficulties can find employment in the first labour market. The compartmentalisation of services continues to produce additional b arriers that prevent social care workers from discharging their duties with regard to their clients. Let us consider an example. Let us suppose that a social worker has the responsibility to support some individuals with learning disabilities which live in group homes (Beckett 2005: 138). One of the residents approaches him and tells him that she has got into a muddle with her benefits with the result that she has run out of money and is very distressed about this. The social care worker calms her down and places some phone calls to the local benefits office and sorts it out for his client. In a way, the social worker ‘has respected [the client’s] wishes and done exactly what she asked of him. Has he therefore supported her right to determine her own life?’ (Beckett 2005: 138) His commitment to support her desire to self-determine her life here clearly conflicted with her desire to draw on needed support. The real crux of the problem however lies elsewhere. The client has been unable to get sufficient support from the benefits office and therefore felt unable to sort out the issue on her own. In fact, the lack of adequate support on the side of the benefits office, possibly the absence of a trained worker in the office who has the skills and training to deal with people with learning disabilities has made it impossible for her to deal with it independently. Additionally, the social worker may have chosen to limit his support by assisting her in dealing with the benefits office rather than sorting it out himself. In this way, policy and practice may substantially collide when it comes to practical issues for individuals with learning disabilities. The codes of practice fail to give any meaningful guidance in these cases. This criticism is not new. Academic observers have repeatedly noted that the codes of practice are too abstract and cease to have any meaning unless sufficient resources are made available to enable service professionals to act in a positive way towards service clients (Watson 1985: 31). More worryingly, Watson writes: ‘the abstraction of the code of practice renders principles not simply incapable of application, but capable of application in a number of ways – only some of which are consistent with the conception of professional social work.’ (Watson 1985: 31) Again, this gives rise to some serious problems with regard to care for people with learning disabilities. Let us consider another example. The conception of self-determination as enshrined in the Codes of Practice draws on culturally contingent notions of autonomy. On the other hand they also pay respect to the need to recognise other culture’s diverse social commitments. The code however fails to recognise that these two principles conflict. For some families and carers who belong to ethnic minorities, service support may be seen as contradicting cultural norms and standards and the family may be the preferred vehicle for support. Societal inclusion and integration in the wider community may therefore be barred as an option. Social workers are in a dilemma here. It is their obligation to promote the self-determination of their clients, this however may contravene the cultural and religious norms prevalent in some families. This demonstrates that the Codes of Practice are bas ed on an understanding of social life that is predominantly Western in character. Different stipulations of the Code are therefore inconsistent with each other. As Beckett writes, the notion of individual autonomy may be differently stressed in the various cultures (Beckett 2005: 132), Often the rights of individuals with learning disabilities may run counter to the interests of the rights of particular groups or communities (Beckett 2005: 132). The second way of framing the idea of social care and its conflict with particular practices is utilitarian in nature. Social workers and their management may be led by calculations of expediency in determining the right way of dealing with problems of people with learning disabilities. Resource allocation and budget constraints are the primary factors in these considerations. This approach is however often detrimental to the interests of adults with learning disabilities. Their interests are defined through the limitations and budgetary restrictions that are placed on the service. The individual with learning disability is not placed at the centre of planning and support packages. One particular practice has tried to square the constraints placed on the service with the ethical demands under which social workers operate. Direct payments have been actively promoted by central government and are often seen as a way to empower clients with learning disabilities. They are considered as an appropriate means to re-focus the delivery of social services on the needs of the individual with learning disabilities as well as represent a viable answer to the resource allocation problem. Clients are granted a particular budget and exercise total control over its spending. Adults with learning disabilities become buyers in a market of social and care services, or so the theory goes. At a first glance this will alleviate several acute problems. It enhances the (chances for) independence of clients and motivates them to make their own choices about important life decisions. It increases their participation in the decision making process and improves quality of life. It also ef fects a significant shift away from total care packages which are expensive to the tax payer and facilitates the involvement of clients in more task-centred care packages which are less expensive (Mansell 2005: 20). It therefore adequately and neatly addresses resource constraints while mirroring the move to individualised care and support plans (Mansell 2005: 20). This way it mirrors the stipulation of the Code of Practice which places the duty on social workers to maximise participation of clients in the decision making process (BASW 1986: 5; Codes 2001: 16). However, it works with a very lop-sided notion of independence. While participation in the labour market may still be prevented to clients with learning disabilities, acting as a buyer in an economic relationship is seen as a form of empowerment. The conception of social agency is severely restricted to co-operative schemes that are economic in character. The enhancement of social involvement may benefit little from this. This demonstrates that ethical issues in social work are often critically influenced by practices that are understood to reflect universal cultural attitudes but, more appropriately, may only resonate with erroneous and impoverished notions of social agency. Bibliography Beckett, Chris and Andrew Maynard (2005), Values and Ethics in Social Work. An Introduction. London e.a.: Sage British Association of Social Workers [1986], A Code of Ethics for Social Work, Birmingham: BASW Codes of Practice for Social Service Workers and Employees (2001), Scottish Social Services Council, Dundee 2005 Loewenberg, Frank M. and Ralph Dolgoff (1992), Ethical Decisions for Social Work Practice, Itasca: F.E. Peacock Mansell, Jim and Julie Beadle-Brown (2005), Person Centred Planning and Person-Centred Action. A Critical Perspective, in Person Centred Planning and Care Management with People with Learning Disabilities, London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley, pp.19-33 Watson, David (1985), What’s the point of A Code of Ethics for Social Work? In A Code of Ethics for Social Work. The Second Step, edited by David Watson, London e.a.: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp.20-39 Valuing People (2001). A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the twenty-first century, London: The Stationary Office

Friday, October 25, 2019

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Veterans :: Post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD

This essay discusses Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and its effect on combat soldiers involved in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars. The goal of this paper is to inform others about what the soldiers deal with during and after combat and the different treatments available for them to cope with and hopefully overcome this disorder. PTSD is an anxiety disorder that develops when someone is witness to or experiences a traumatic event. PTSD has specific symptoms resulting from traumatic life threatening experiences. Symptoms resulting from the event must be present in a certain way over a period of time and for certain duration. A person who witnesses two or more traumatic events in a short amount of time can cause the brain to release the hormone glucocorticoid which helps control the response to stress. When this hormone is low or depleted and a second traumatic event takes place before the hormone is replenished in the brain, the stress becomes even more intensified thus increasing the person’s chances of developing PTSD. Most people who develop PTSD get better but 1 out of 3 people may continue to have some symptoms over their lifetime. The main symptom of PTSD is reliving the traumatic experience through flashbacks and nightmares. Other symptoms include soldiers avoiding situations, people or conversations that would remind them of the trauma. They tend to avoid memories by becoming numb, distant, or stop showing love towards others. Activities, such as sports, that may have been a favorite pastime, may not be interesting anymore. The person may also show signs of paranoia as always being alert and on the lookout for danger. They may become jittery, easily startled when hearing loud noises such as a car backfiring or when a friend dove behind a store dumpster after a store employee threw a florescent light and it made a sound like an explosion. In some cases, the person becomes angry, irritable, and even violent. People who are dealing with PTSD may start drinking and using drugs to cope with the memories, flashbacks and nightmares. Many feel hopelessness, shame, or despair. PTSD makes holding down a job much harder, and relationships can be destroyed when there is physical, verbal or mental abuse. Some people cannot deal with the continual flashbacks and nightmares of PTSD and end up committing suicide. There are several treatments to help patients deal with symptoms of PTSD and to have more productive and happier lives.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Differences among Korea, India, and China

Korea, China and India are the countries that have historical backgrounds that make each of them renowned all over the world. These countries have unique attributes that make them stand out to the whole world.  Korea is a divided country of eastern Asia. It occupies a peninsula, about 450 miles in length, between the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea. China and a tip of the Soviet Union border Korea on the north. The nearest Japanese islands are about 30 miles away, in the Korea Strait. Since 1945, Korea has been divided into two political units—the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea). They are separated by a demilitarized zone, about 2  ½ miles in width, along the armistice line established in 1953 at the close of the Korea War. The total area (including the demilitarized zone) is 85,049 square miles. North Korea occupies 46,540 square miles and South Korea 38,025 square miles. Virtually all the inhabitants of the peninsula are Koreans. They are a Mongoloid people, who apparently migrated in prehistoric times from what is now Manchuria. The Korean language is believed to be unrelated to any known tongue. There is, however, a strong infusion of Chinese words in the vocabulary. A phonetic alphabet—originally 28, now 24 letters—has been in use since 1443. In South Korea offer a free education and compulsory through six years of primary school, which begins at age six. It is followed by three years of middle school and then three years of high school (Choi, 2003). The chief institution of higher learning is Seoul National University. In North Korea, education is free and compulsory through five years of primary school (which begins at age six), four years of middle school, and two years of high school. The major institution of higher learning is Kim II Sung University at Pyongyang. Technical education and the teaching of Communist ideology are stressed in North Korean education. On the other hand, India or Republic of India is a country in southern Asia and a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. India is an English word derived from the Sanskrit sindhu, which means river and was originally applied to the part of the Indus River now in Pakistan. In Hindi, the official national language established by the Indian constitution, the nation is called Bharat. India has more than 800 languages and dialects. The constitution declares Hindi the national language, but English is also an official language in government and is widely used. The constitution establishes for use in government 14 other major languages. In addition, education is primarily the responsibility of the state governments. The union, or central, government coordinates facilities and standards in the states, administer education in the union territories, and controls four universities and certain special schools (Brown, 2005). While China or the People’s Republic of China is a country in eastern in eastern Asia. It is sometimes called Communist China or Mainland China to distinguish it from the Republic of China to distinguish it from the Republic of China, or Nationalist China, situated on the offshore island of Taiwan (Formosa). Both governments claim to be the rightful rulers of all China, but the Communists have been in firm control of the mainland since 1949 and since 1971 have been recognized by the United Nations as the legal rulers. Chinese, a Sino-Tibetan language, is spoken by most of the people in China. There are a large number of dialects, the chief being Cantonese, Fukienese, and Wu. The official language is the Mandarin dialect, officially called putonghua (common speech), which is understood by about 70 percent of people. Other languages include Tibetan, spoken in Tibet and parts of China Proper; Turkic, in Sinkiang; Mongol, in Inner Mongolia; and Thai, in parts of southern China (Barnett, 2006). With regards to its educational system, elementary education, depending on the program being pursued, lasts five or six years. Lower secondary education lasts three years; upper secondary education, depending upon the school, two or three years. China has an extensive adult-educational program, particularly to teach literacy. About one-fourth of the population is illiterate. Reference: Barnett, A.D. (2006). Modernizing China: Post-Mao Reform and Development (Westview Press). Brown, J.M. (2005). Modern India: the Origins of an Asian Democracy (Oxford University). Choi, Woonsang (2003). Korea: a Chronology and fact Book (Oceana).

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

War Trash

War Trash Introduction War Trash is a fictional novel written by Ha Jin and published in 2004. The novel is about the predicaments of North Koreans and Chinese POWs during the Korean War. The author uses Yu Yuan to narrate the experience of POWs in the camps. War Trash is basically set in a prisoner of war camp located in South Korea.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on War Trash specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The camp hosts both North Korean and Chinese soldiers captured by the American and South Korean army. The author dwells mainly on dissimilar thoughts held by the Chinese and North Korean POWs in relation to their native countries. Ha Jin uses Yu Yuan (the narrator) to reveal the narrator’s unique perception about his life and duties. He is also used in the novel to depict his principles of fairness, friendship, love as well as respect (Whipple 1). Results There are several themes that emerge from this novel . The struggle between political ideologies (communism versus democracy) is one such theme. For example, the pro-communist camp used propaganda to force POWs to be repatriated back to North Korea and China. On the other hand, the pro-Nationalist camp employs similar strategy to compel POWs to be taken to Taiwan, an island claimed to be democratic and free. For example, the North Korean POWs are enticed by the pro-Nationalist camp to accept repatriation to Taiwan where they will enjoy free life than one offered in their native North Korea country. The relevance of this theme is also highlighted by YU Yuan. We learn that he is a victim of ridicule back at home because of his close ties with the Nationalist camp. In addition, Yuan is unable to get any gainful employment (Amend 5). This novel uses Yu Yuan’s personal view to describe the major issues of the Korean War. The major theme of War Trash is that the North Koreans and Chinese supported each other to thwart effort by South Koreans to capture Manchuria. North Koreans, either Communist or Nationalist was merely fodder for the war and would lose everything irrespective of their choices. The novel also uses Yu Yuan to describe how it is very difficult to find a path for a â€Å"good† person to live in especially if the society is corrupted. Yuan (the main character) felt responsible for his fiancà ©e and mother and decided go back to China although he was not a communist. However, according to the society, it is better to die than be captured by the enemy. He would thus be treated as a traitor to the Communist cause if he went home. Nonetheless, Yu Yuan sacrifices himself and opted to go home to take care of his mother (Amend 5).Advertising Looking for research paper on literature languages? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Deception is another theme that emerges from this novel. Both side of the political divide lied to POWs. For example, the North Korean prisoners were promised by the Nationalists side a better and free life if they chose to be repatriated to Taiwan. But we learn from Yuan that this is a lie. Just like Yuan, the North Korean prisoner would receive cold reception in Taiwan due to their close ties with Communism. On the same note, if they opted to go back to their native country (North Korea), they would also be seen as traitors because they accepted to be captured by the enemy rather than die. In nutshell, both sides deceived the prisoners and everybody was used as a pawn. Thus, all characters in the novel are â€Å"war trash† (Reed Business Information1). We also learn from the novel that it is very had to find a path for a â€Å"good† person to live in a society that is corrupted. For example, the citizens living in both North Korea and mainland China are â€Å"corrupted† by Communism ideologies. Although Yuan and other POWs served their country with dedication during the war, they are accused of treason and treated as outcasts when they arrive home. The society cannot appreciate the fact that Yuan (being a good person) has decided to return home to take care of his mother. Traditionally, the Chinese and North Koreans value close family ties and young people are expected to take care of their aging family members. This is the main reason why Yuan decides to return home. However, instead of receiving praise from his members of the society for fulfilling his obligation, he is seen as a traitor (Whipple 4). Critical Review of War Trash War Trash is basically a by-product of creative imagination as well as extensive research (Yee 1). In spite of the fact that there exist some resemblance between Ha Jin (the author) and Yu Yuan (his narrator), the entire story is purely fictional. If the author feels the â€Å"full weight of the tattoo,† he does so only in his mind and soul because the tattoo is on the belly of Yu Yuan (the narrator) and not h is (Jin 5). In spite of the fact that War Trash evokes memories of a key historical occasion that affects both Yu Yuan as well as the readers, it is imperative to note that the major themes presented in this novel are not entirely about Korea, United States or China. On the contrary, the novel dwells on issues such as war and humanity which have universal appeal (Wong 5). The first chapter of the novel introduces Yu Yuan (the narrator) who happens to be a student at the Huangpu Military Academy. It is at this time (1949) when the Communist Party assumes control of China. Yu Yuan and other students at the academy willingly acknowledge the new government given their disgust of the defunct corruption-riddled Nationalist regime.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on War Trash specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After his graduation from the military academy, Yu Yuan is posted to the head offices of the 180th Division, a unit mainly responsible for regional reconstruction. However, in 1951, the division is assigned new duties and instructed to initiates military plans to invade South Korea. After extensive training for weeks, the division finally enters Korea. While they are in Korea, the division comes under heavy attacks by America warplanes. In face of dwindling supplies of water and food and pounded by air and artillery attacks from all angles, the division disintegrates as some members of the North Korean and Chinese forces surrender. Later on, Yu Yuan joins Commissar Pei and spent his time reading Uncle Tom’s Cabin in to enhance his English skills and teach some English words to his withered counterparts. One day, the group is attacked and Yuan gets injured in the grenade explosion (Shy 3). Yu Yuan wakes up in a POW hospital and discovers that his left femur was badly injured in the grenade explosion. After undergoing several surgeries at the hospital, Yu Yuan receives news that his in jured leg will recover. Yu Yuan is taken through several physiotherapy sessions by Major Greene (a female medical doctor) to help him recover. During these sessions, Yu Yuan takes her through calligraphic lessons which she ignored to study while in a Shanghai school. He later comes into contact with Commissar Pei in a nearby compound. Pei instructs him to develop close ties with Dr. Greene in order to solicit information about the ongoing peace talks at Panmunjom. However, Yu Yuan is informed by the doctor that he is among the POWs to be transferred to Koje Island where most of the North Korean as well as Chinese prisoners of war are being held in captivity by the American forces (Shy 3). Ha Jin gives a vivid account of what transpires at the POWs camps. The struggles that emerge between American guards and their POW; between North Korean prisoners and their Chinese counterparts; and among Chinese prisoners who desire to go home and those who do not are described in somewhat spare p rose.Advertising Looking for research paper on literature languages? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nonetheless, the author is able to capitalize on the chronological events of the Korean War as a background to depict a rather multifaceted condition of love, frailty, aspiration, as well as human tragedy presented from the narrator’s (Yu Yuan) personal viewpoint (Wong 6). Following his capture, Yu Yuan is taken to Pusan city where he is registered as a prisoner of war. Yu Yuan assumes a fake identity so as to conceal his military rank from his captors. Later on, his captors transfer him to Guh-Jae-Do Island where most of the captured prisoners are held. Yu Yuan is not happy to be in the pro-Nationalist camp. This is not because of his political ideology but rather he craves to be repatriated to China, his native country, in order to be with his mother as well as his fiancà ©e. If he chooses to go to Taiwan, his credibility in China would be irreparably damaged thereby making such a return unfeasible. Although his relationship with Huangpu grants him some level of comfort, h e is immediately captured by the pro-Nationalist group and tattooed with an English phrase Fuck Communism when he states his desire to be repatriated to Mainland China, his native country (Yee 3). The value of Yu Yuan to his captors increases after his capture. It is worthy to mention that the narrator was a cadet at Huangpu Military Academy even before the Communists assumed power in 1949. In addition, Yu Yuan is extremely valued by the Chinese for is exceptional skills in the English language. He was consequently drafted as an interpreter and played key roles during the negotiations with the Americans. Yu Yuan’s propensity to keep his own counsel as well as his military and academic background alienates him from his fellow prisoners who are being enticed to either defect to what is claimed as Free China (Taiwan, an island protected by American) or go back to their native country. Most of the prisoners at the camp desire to be repatriated to their homeland for ideological or financial reasons (Wong 6). However, Yu Yan wishes to go back to his homeland for a different reason. He merely wants to be repatriated to his native country to be with his fiancà ©e Julan as well as take care of his aging mother. This isolation enables Yu Yuan to watch unfolding events around him with an objective mind unlike many other prisoners who are deeply blinded by ideological commitments. This alienation also bolsters Yu Yuan’s tendency to pay no attention to labels such friend or foe, soldier or officer, Chinese or American. It is against this background that he impulsively attempts to help the desolate and the desperate prisoners in the camps irrespective of their labels-be they animals (such as the dog Blackie) or the young Shanmin, a fellow prisoner of war (Wong 6). The author also gives a vivid description of the inhumane conditions experienced by North Koreans POW at the camp. Ha Jin describes how prisoners spent most of their time in the camp. Most of them a re bored and depressed. In addition, they spent most of their time gambling and fighting especially over food. Moreover, the anti-Communist leaders single out those prisoners who decline to sign up for the supposed Free China (Taiwan Island) for special abuse. These conditions are further aggravated by the overcrowding in the pro-Communist tents which restricts movement. Prisoners held in the pro-Communist compound are given half the food rations offered to prisoners held in the Anti-Communist camps. The head of the anti-Communist compound is known as Liu Tai, a former Nationalist army sergeant who gave in to the American army at the first opportunity. Liu has a personal guard who intimidates prisoners in the camp. In fact, he is commonly referred to as Little Caesar by the Americans. The prisoners are also denied freedom of expression. This is illustrated by Bai Dajian, a young inmate at the compound. When Dajian cynically condemns the criminal ineptitude of their Communist leaders in the war, Yu Yuan tells him to shut up because spies are everywhere (Shy 4). Following his enrollment in the Communist camp, Yu is suspected for his close association with both the pro-Nationalists as well as Huangpu. Nonetheless, he is able to win the trust of his superiors due to his knowledge of English language. The conditions at the Communist camp are much better and the POWs initiate plans for a possible confrontation. Nonetheless, they cannot match up with their counterparts in the North Korean camp who posses immense local knowledge due to their constant interactions with their Pyongyang capital. Ultimately, the North Korean camp enlists support from the Chinese camp in order to capture General Bell (the leader of all the POW camps). Yu Yuan is selected by Commissar Pei, the Chinese camp leader, to facilitate the meetings between these two camps. The Chinese pro-Communist camp amasses information and relay it to the North Korean camp. This information is used to entice Ge neral Bell to attend concession meetings then capture him (Wong 7). Later on, the POWs are transferred to better camps on the island of Cheju. Nonetheless, prisoners are unable to organize any meaningful resistance since the camps on Cheju Island are well managed and security is top-notch. To complicate the matter, Commissar Pei is detached from the rest of prisoners. As a result, prisoners feel cut off from their native country and are concerned that they will be subjected to unfair treatment when they go back to mainland China. Nevertheless, given the inventive communication methods developed at the new camp, Pei is able to convey instructions to hoist locally-produced Chinese flags to commemorate national day. In spite of the fact that this move invigorates prisoners, it turns out to be counter-productive as confrontations ensue and many prisoners die in the ensuing skirmishes (Yee 6). The author employs a colorful narration style to portray the American attacks on North Korean l ines, the terrible fatalities, the starvation conditions that compel men to survive on water and flour for prolonged periods and their sense of desertion by their regime. For example, when Yu Yuan is injured in a grenade explosion, he is taken hostage and assigned to a prisoners of war camp where both the North Korean and mainland officers control some sections of it. It is also worthy to note that the entire camp is controlled by the Americans. Han Jin enlivens the proceedings in the camp as officers attempt to maintain order while the prisoners try to conceal their true identity. This is attributed to the fact that Chinese prisoners fear the impending backlash when they return to mainland China. Yu Yuan, just like other North Korean prisoners in the camp, is powerlessly coalesced by the forces of destiny, always striving to remain alive, always striving to comply with orders from his captors (irrespective of the fact that his captors mistreat North Korean and Chinese troops). As t he war comes to an end, new problems emerge. Yu Yuan is undecided on whether to go back home or opt for Taiwan where will be censured for his close ties with the Communist side (Whipple 4). Results and discussions Character Analysis Yu Yuan symbolizes a powerless individual who is part of a system that does not respect the wellbeing of individuals. Although Yuan wishes to return to his mother and fiancà ©e, he is worried about the way the society will treat him. Just like other North Korean and Chinese POWs described in War Trash, Yuan is evidently dejected and readers sympathize with him in spite of the fact that his personal character arises from his intrinsic character. Although War Trash portrays a whole culture, it does not dwell on love story, an aspect that joins other war novels and creates a link with readers. Nonetheless, War Trash stands out as a captivating and satisfying novel for readers who crave to learn about the influence of culture on behavior (Whipple 6). The au thor employs the historical background of the Korean War to present a vivid description of the characters in the War Trash. The characters are depicted as discrete social types: the feeble ones who lose hope and die; the collaborators; and the leaders who are undeniably motivated by a goal bigger than themselves. The creativity of the author is manifested by his characters in the novel: Yuan, the various North Korean Nationalists, American soldiers and Commissar Pei are extremely individualized. Nevertheless, they all mirror something of the social type. In other words, these characters depict the discrete marks of their social histories. All these characters- the intellectual jerked by revolution and war, the illiterate peasant enlisted into the army, the criminals, the coward who gives in or dies under pressure, the political elites inspired by higher ideologies, are all incarcerate in the POW camps. The real individual attributes and social type of a given character are interlace d together generating neither a fantastic phantom nor a stereotype. These types of characters exist even today. Yu Yuan inquires from an American prison priest why prisoners at the camp receive unequal treatment yet they are all sinners. The chaplain respond by saying that this is the way things should be carried out since Communist is wicked. It is worthy to note that this theme is very relevant today because if Islam was to replace Communism in any American camp today, it is highly likely that the same scene will replay itself (English 5). The novel also talks about the difficulties North Korean (and China) citizens experience as a result of political unrest. Often, the entire lives of the characters depicted in War Trash are determined by political commotions over which they had no control. War Trash poses salient questions on whether a person can truly live a free and good life in the society. The novel is about Yu Yuan who is valued by his Communist army and his captors because for his knowledge of English language. Although his does not subscribe to Communist Ideology, he must choose either to be repatriated to mainland China or Taiwan. Both choices have consequences. Nonetheless, he opts for China in order to be able to take care of his mother. It is also worthy note that the North Korean POWs have no value to the Communist Party who vilified them after the war ended irrespective of the numerous acts of loyalty they showed. Their only crime was that they were captured by the enemy (Reed Business Information 2). War Trash proceeds to reveal that devotion to a goal bigger than an individual is precisely how the characters regain self-respect. Yu Yuan is a moderately non-political individual. However, the sadism and hypocrisy of the Nationalist side makes him an active resister under Stalinist regime. It is worthy to note that this was the prevailing spirit during the war. Both the North Korean and Chinese people were against national and foreign tormenter s. War Trash reveals the manner in which these social processes take place in a prisoners of war camp. The novel uses great compassion to describe the feelings of unfair treatment and injustice that Yu Yuan and other inmates experience. They are subjected to poor conditions, torture, beatings and even some of their fellow inmates are killed. Nonetheless, they are able to affirm themselves as complete humans (Amend 76). Amend, Allison. Multicultural Voices: Asian-American Writers. New York: InfoBase Publishing, 2010. Print. English, Sandy. â€Å"Novel About POWs Wins PEN/Faulkner Award.† 2005. Web. Jin Ha. War Trash: A novel. New York: Pantheon Books, 2004. Print. Reed Business Information. â€Å"Editorial Reviews.† 2009. Web. Shy, John. â€Å"Ha Jin’s War Trash: Novel as Historical Evidence.† 2005. Web. Whipple, Mary. â€Å"Seeing the World through Books.† 2011. Web. Wong, C. Timothy. â€Å"A Review of War Trash: A Novel.† 2006. Web. Yee, D anny. â€Å"Danny Yee’s Book Reviews.† 2008. Web.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Free Essays on The Expansion Of The Discipline Of Geography Before 1900

Relate the expansion of the discipline of geography before 1900 to social, technological, and ideological change â€Å"GEOGRAPHY The discipline has many interpretations, which might best be understood if they are taken chronologically†¦It would take considerable temerity to find a unifying definition throughout the twists and turns that the discipline has taken† (Mayhew 1997,191) The above quote is taken from a dictionary of geography and shows how ‘geography’ is almost indefinable as a word, concept or subject. More interestingly it shows that the difficulty in defining it lies in its varied history. Since 1900 geography has made relatively little change compared to its formation and transformation in previous centuries. Having said this the period 1880-1950 did see some important adjustments, with the influences of Darwinism, Environmental Determinism, Possibilism and Social Anarchism. Today it is a popular taught and valued subject and a key component of the UK’s (and much of European countries’) National Curriculum. Geography has come to be the theoretical study of the world and it’s populations and how they work and interact, and the application of data to test and process these theories, in order to manage and sustain the world. Geographic history dates back long before 1900, with origins as old as Ancient Greece. Although geographical thinking continued throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, mostly by Arab and Islamic thinkers, its biggest expansion occurred later in the 15th and 16th centuries, with the exploration and missionary works of European geographers and the imperialist expansion of countries such as Britain. Later the works of prominent geographers such as Immanuel Knat, Richard Hartshorne and Carl Ritter shaped the subject bringing it ever closer to its present understanding. The expansion of geography owed much to the social, technological and ideological changes that occurred in... Free Essays on The Expansion Of The Discipline Of Geography Before 1900 Free Essays on The Expansion Of The Discipline Of Geography Before 1900 Relate the expansion of the discipline of geography before 1900 to social, technological, and ideological change â€Å"GEOGRAPHY The discipline has many interpretations, which might best be understood if they are taken chronologically†¦It would take considerable temerity to find a unifying definition throughout the twists and turns that the discipline has taken† (Mayhew 1997,191) The above quote is taken from a dictionary of geography and shows how ‘geography’ is almost indefinable as a word, concept or subject. More interestingly it shows that the difficulty in defining it lies in its varied history. Since 1900 geography has made relatively little change compared to its formation and transformation in previous centuries. Having said this the period 1880-1950 did see some important adjustments, with the influences of Darwinism, Environmental Determinism, Possibilism and Social Anarchism. Today it is a popular taught and valued subject and a key component of the UK’s (and much of European countries’) National Curriculum. Geography has come to be the theoretical study of the world and it’s populations and how they work and interact, and the application of data to test and process these theories, in order to manage and sustain the world. Geographic history dates back long before 1900, with origins as old as Ancient Greece. Although geographical thinking continued throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, mostly by Arab and Islamic thinkers, its biggest expansion occurred later in the 15th and 16th centuries, with the exploration and missionary works of European geographers and the imperialist expansion of countries such as Britain. Later the works of prominent geographers such as Immanuel Knat, Richard Hartshorne and Carl Ritter shaped the subject bringing it ever closer to its present understanding. The expansion of geography owed much to the social, technological and ideological changes that occurred in...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Basics of Astronomy essays

Basics of Astronomy essays #1) (A) Issac Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation is: Two bodies attracted to each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This means that the further apart these two attracting bodies are from each other, the less the gravitational force between them is. The force of gravity depends on the product of the mass of the two attracting bodies. If the distance between the two bodies doubles, the force between them becomes one quarter of the force it was before. The Law of Universal Gravitation is vital because it mathematically proves Keplers Three Laws of Planetary Motion. The Planets follow the same laws of motion as objects on the surface of the earth. (B) Newton discovered other types of orbits that have circular of elliptical paths. However, if the velocity of an orbiting body were increased, its orbital path would change to a parabola or hyperbola and it would escape the gravitational pull of the sun. It would then leave the solar system. Parabolas are the orbital paths of objects in the form of an open curve. If one cuts out an angle in a circular cone, it would follow this path parallel to the sides of the cone. Hyperbolas occur when a plane cuts across two parallels half-cones. Keplers laws applies to any situation where two bodies in the universe orbit each other due to their mutual gravitational attraction, not just two planets. For example: Moons that orbit planets, such as the four Galilean Moons that orbit Jupiter. #2)(A) The reflecting telescope, which uses a mirror to attract light was perfected by Isaac Newton in 1668 although it was developed by John Gregory in 1663. The refracting telescope, which uses a lens to attract light was developed by a Dutch optician in 1608 named Hans Lippershey. Two other inventors were Zacharias Jannssen and Jacob Metius. However, Galil...

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Police future and using of new Technologies Essay

Police future and using of new Technologies - Essay Example Local law enforcement agencies are part of the overall DHS team, even while taking care of local issues, as they are also at street level and most likely to gather information from neighborhood contacts (Peak 2012). Many of the tools devised by the military are now being used by the law enforcement communities to help overcome issues of restricted manpower and availability on the streets. Tools used by the FBI and the NSA, particularly within the surveillance realm, are being used, such as advanced electronic apparatus that will pick up any phone and texting messages being sent in any given area that is being monitored by the Stingray (Sabalow 2013). This mobile device picks up the transmissions from a close-by tower and relays it back to the mobile device’s antenna and is then downloaded to a laptop. By all formal accounts, actual phone conversations and text messages are not picked up in real time. The point is to determine those suspected phone numbers, which link people being watched, with others who may yet be unknown to the police, until that linkage occurs. Location of the phone call or message is recorded by location and time, perhaps placing certain suspicious people close to so me event that has occurred, or is likely to occur, such as a bombing. The next step for law enforcement is to get a warrant that can be applied to the tower’s carrier and thus, be able to get more information from the carrier on the suspected people involved. However, there is always room for abuse in determining just when the original information was gathered, thus necessitating that warrant, or if one was even obtained. Not only are suspected people under surveillance, so are those people who just happen to be in that area where the tower is located (Sabalow 2013). It would be ideal if law enforcement could come up with fine-tuned technology that could just follow the suspicious phone numbers and text messages by setting up a technological code on the

Friday, October 18, 2019

Why should Schotland become independent Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Why should Schotland become independent - Essay Example ttish voted unanimously for the devolution of powers, which meant that despite Scotland being part of the UK, its government gained new more powers such as control of health care and education and in the first time a Scottish parliament (Pruitt, 2014). The quest for independence continued with the election of Alex Salmond in 2007 and subsequent re-election in 2011, which led to the approval of the 2014 independence referendum to end the 307- year old union with the UK even though the SNP party under the leadership of Alex did not win as anticipated. However, some of the major as to why Scotland should be independent include efforts to stop the mass nuclear weapon building, establish Scotland’s democracy, create opportunities for its citizens, end unfairness, and because it has capacity to support it operation. As with democracy, it means that it will endow Scotland self-determination ability and will possess full power in decision making in terms of political affairs. Such was the strong stand held by Salmond in May 2012, when he often stated; the Scottish people living in Scotland are better positioned to make the choices that affect Scotland (Carrell and team, 2014). The pro-independence campaigns by the proponents of the Scotland self-rule often stated that the union had a democratic deficit because United Kingdom is a unitary state and lacks a codified constitution. This deficit has often been used to refer to a period between the 1979 and 1997 United Kingdom elections, during when even though the Labour party holding majority seats in house, the Conservative Party ruled the entire UK. In reference to the instance, Alex Salmond said that such situations amounted to the lack of democracy and added that the Scottish people need to have the right choice for Scotland (independentscotland. org, 2014). Another reason for the independence quest is that with an independent Scotland, it will be easy to address the removal of the Trident nuclear weapons. The aftermath

National debt with regards to taxes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

National debt with regards to taxes - Essay Example Therefore, whenever the national debt is high, there is a likelihood that the citizenry will be affected, since the available national resources could not be sufficient to cover for all the government payments in form of the interest rates that it must pay periodically to the creditors (Boccia, 2013). The consequence is that; the taxes that are collected from the citizenry must then be increased, so that there is enough money to cover for the payment of the interest in the debts that the government owes different creditors. Therefore, while there could be less awareness in relation to the impacts of the national debts on the citizenry to the public, the truth is that the effect of the national debt must be felt by all. Thus, the effects of National debt include: The National debt affects the tax rates that are charged on the common citizens, as well as the private sector through the licensing and other legal requirements that business are required to have. Whenever the National debt is high, the government has to seek for a way to increase the available revenue so that it can be able to meet the debt obligations in form of interest payments that must be made every single financial period (Faulhaber, 2010). Consequently, when the government is unable to meet the interest obligations from the already collected tax revenues, the government turns to the public for more money through raising the tax rates that the public must pay on various essential products and services. The increased taxation on the other hand becomes a financial burden for the common citizens, considering that they are now getting less value for their money. When the rate of taxation has increased, the prices of goods and services that the common citizens consume goes high, which in turn means that the value for their money has now significantly reduced (Boccia, 2013). The increased taxation does not only affect the common citizens, but also businesses, considering that their profitability will be reduced, while the costs of operations will keep increasing. The consequence is that, National debt increases the tax burden on both citizens and businesses, making it hard for businesses to grow, while reducing the purchasing power of the public (Agonist Learning Center, 2009). The net effect is that, investments will not perform well in the situation where the national debt is high. Further, National debt affects the interest in the sense that, the national banks continuously keeps track of the national debt as they are continuously served with such information from the central bank. The relationship between the central bank and the other commercial banks is that; the central bank is the key determinant of the interest rates that the commercial banks will charge on loans and mortgages issued to the banks’ customers (Faulhaber, 2010). Therefore, when the national debt increases, there is a need for more money that is used to cover for the increased interest rates that the government must pay to the creditors. Consequently, the central bank raises the interest rates, which are then increased by the commercial banks in similar proportions (Boccia, 2013). Therefore, the increased national debt serves to increase the

Financial Crisis in the UK Banking Sector Essay

Financial Crisis in the UK Banking Sector - Essay Example Likewise, those that did not have access to important natural resources have been able to access the resource base and exploit the same to their advantage. The characteristic advancement of information and technological systems has made it possible for populations, firms and corporations to exploit emergent opportunities with ease. Notably, a significant percentage of the populations are taking practical steps to align their ways of life to the societal expectations with respect to improved standards of living. Apart from benefiting the society positively, inherent globalization has also had adverse impacts on the wellbeing of the society. Perhaps the sector that has been the most affected by the relative changes pertains to the economic segment. At this point, it cannot be disputed that the world economy directly affects the quality of life of the populations. This has further been occasioned by the characteristic integration that has tied local and regional economy to the wider glo bal economy. Thus operations at the global level have direct implications on the performance and general wellbeing of local, national and regional economy. This integration has made the financial sector susceptible to the negative impacts that stem from economic shocks. Coupled with the fragile nature of financial systems, the current economic instability has undermined the ability of the respective systems to cushion themselves against relative negative impacts. One of the economic problems that has posed great challenges to the UK government as well as the global financial system pertains to the 2008-2009 financial crisis. Seemingly, relevant authorities are taking practical steps to reinstate financial stability and enhance optimal performance. This is elemental in enabling them to attain a desirable state with respect to sustainable growth and development. Fundamentally, relative strategies are in line with their economic goals and objectives. Besides the challenges that are rel ated to economic integration, the UK financial sector has been compounded by governance problems. At this point, it cannot be disputed that governance problems contributed a great deal to the financial crisis that the country experienced at this particular time. In a society that is characterized by uncertainty, effective governance is important in enhancing optimal performance. Governance in this regard is all encompassing and ranges from the expertise and policies to the rules and regulations that are established to guide behavior and decision making. These need to be based on informed thought and to bear desirable outcomes; they need to be consistent with the economic changes being experienced in the market. Indeed, the fact that good governance is essential and contributes significantly to the integrity as well as stability of financial systems cannot be overstated. With this asset, corporations and organization can be able to maneuver their way through the volatile economic env ironment. It is against this background that this paper provides an in depth analysis of how poor governance in the UK financial sector contributed to the financial crisis that it experienced. To enhance coherence, the paper begins by explaining the notion and importance of good governance in the current financial corporate sector. Understanding Good Governance In his research, Hart (1995, p. 54) contends

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Auditors' liability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Auditors' liability - Essay Example Scandals such as those of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), Barlow Clowes, Atlantic Computers, Coloroll, Ferranti, Homes Assured, Levitt, Queens Moat Houses, Resort Hotels, Eagle Trust, London United Investments, Maxwell and Polly Peck have resulted in loss of jobs, savings, investments, pensions and taxation revenues. (Mitchell et al, 1991) The audit of a company's financial statement poses a certain degree of risk for the auditors and the company. The auditors have to objectively audit a company that reflects a true picture of the company. Since the managers depend on the audit to help them understand the current scenario of the company to take future decisions, and investors use the audit to help them take investing decisions, the correctness of the audit carries high stakes for all. (Defintions) Until recently, auditors had unlimited liability towards the public incase of negligence, breach of contract or fraud. Due to this very law, there have been cases in the past that have wiped the company clean due to gigantic compensations. Following the collapse of a company, third parties would often attempt to recover their losses from a solvent and insured auditor. Faced with such claims, the common and civil law courts had to struggle between two conflicting interests: the public's interest in the independent and competent review of financial statements and the interest of the auditing profession in carrying out its function without the burden of a potentially overwhelming liability. (Khoury, 2001) The scandal of Enron and its audit company, Arthur Anderson, were the victims of improper auditing and impedance to justice. There were once the 'Big 8' auditing companies which now have been left with the 'Big 4' after a series of mergers. All over the world, these four companies control about 85% of the total audits. (Lawrence, 2006) Auditor liability has been an increasing concern for the auditing profession for a considerable number of years. Such large liabilities are unfair and unjust to auditors. Consequently, a number of jurisdictions in recent years have introduced measures aimed at reforming their auditor liability regimes. However with the communities becoming increasingly litigious, one wonders when the 'Big 4' would be left with the 'Big 3'. (Lawrence, 2006) Duty of Care Owed A duty of care is an obligation to provide a certain level of care to others depending on different circumstances to avoid injury to that individual or his property. Basically the relationship of the parties, the negligent act or omission is prevented by fore-sighting any loss to that individual. An auditor is expected to be able to foresee such acts and respond accordingly. In cases of unintentional negligence which results in losses, such an act will be regarded as having breached a duty of care and at this a time a duty of care is owed. (Solicitors, 2002) (Definitions) The English Law for duty of care was formed in the Scottish case of Donoghue v Stevenson 1932 SC (HL) 31. The general principles for duty of care to be owed included the presence of three points (Solicitors, 2002) 1. Does a duty of care exist The existence of duty of care depends on the type of relationship between the parties. An auditor of a company has a duty towards the

Rising tech firm Asus seeks to improve U.S. brand Essay

Rising tech firm Asus seeks to improve U.S. brand - Essay Example The article likewise provided a brief historical backdrop on Asus, including presenting the increasing number of diverse products it currently manufactures and intends to launch in the global market. The current discourse hereby aims to present the summarized theme of the article and to provide a discussion on why the article is interesting and how it ties in with the material from the book. Personal Insights and Critique The article was particularly interesting in terms of envisioning the anticipated upgrades on the noted Nexus 7 classified as the next generation Nexus 7. Being an intent avid fan of technological gadgets, one is amazed at how technological products continue to make regular updates based on customers’ feedbacks from the last product that was launched. In contemporary times, consumers are provided with opportunities to avail of newer models, upgrades or updates as fast as one year from the time that a newly launched technological gadget was offered for sale in the market. Depending on how consumers reacted and responded, the manufacturer either addresses the weaknesses or incorporates innovative features that could complement and make the upgraded product more attractive to the consumers.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Financial Crisis in the UK Banking Sector Essay

Financial Crisis in the UK Banking Sector - Essay Example Likewise, those that did not have access to important natural resources have been able to access the resource base and exploit the same to their advantage. The characteristic advancement of information and technological systems has made it possible for populations, firms and corporations to exploit emergent opportunities with ease. Notably, a significant percentage of the populations are taking practical steps to align their ways of life to the societal expectations with respect to improved standards of living. Apart from benefiting the society positively, inherent globalization has also had adverse impacts on the wellbeing of the society. Perhaps the sector that has been the most affected by the relative changes pertains to the economic segment. At this point, it cannot be disputed that the world economy directly affects the quality of life of the populations. This has further been occasioned by the characteristic integration that has tied local and regional economy to the wider glo bal economy. Thus operations at the global level have direct implications on the performance and general wellbeing of local, national and regional economy. This integration has made the financial sector susceptible to the negative impacts that stem from economic shocks. Coupled with the fragile nature of financial systems, the current economic instability has undermined the ability of the respective systems to cushion themselves against relative negative impacts. One of the economic problems that has posed great challenges to the UK government as well as the global financial system pertains to the 2008-2009 financial crisis. Seemingly, relevant authorities are taking practical steps to reinstate financial stability and enhance optimal performance. This is elemental in enabling them to attain a desirable state with respect to sustainable growth and development. Fundamentally, relative strategies are in line with their economic goals and objectives. Besides the challenges that are rel ated to economic integration, the UK financial sector has been compounded by governance problems. At this point, it cannot be disputed that governance problems contributed a great deal to the financial crisis that the country experienced at this particular time. In a society that is characterized by uncertainty, effective governance is important in enhancing optimal performance. Governance in this regard is all encompassing and ranges from the expertise and policies to the rules and regulations that are established to guide behavior and decision making. These need to be based on informed thought and to bear desirable outcomes; they need to be consistent with the economic changes being experienced in the market. Indeed, the fact that good governance is essential and contributes significantly to the integrity as well as stability of financial systems cannot be overstated. With this asset, corporations and organization can be able to maneuver their way through the volatile economic env ironment. It is against this background that this paper provides an in depth analysis of how poor governance in the UK financial sector contributed to the financial crisis that it experienced. To enhance coherence, the paper begins by explaining the notion and importance of good governance in the current financial corporate sector. Understanding Good Governance In his research, Hart (1995, p. 54) contends

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Rising tech firm Asus seeks to improve U.S. brand Essay

Rising tech firm Asus seeks to improve U.S. brand - Essay Example The article likewise provided a brief historical backdrop on Asus, including presenting the increasing number of diverse products it currently manufactures and intends to launch in the global market. The current discourse hereby aims to present the summarized theme of the article and to provide a discussion on why the article is interesting and how it ties in with the material from the book. Personal Insights and Critique The article was particularly interesting in terms of envisioning the anticipated upgrades on the noted Nexus 7 classified as the next generation Nexus 7. Being an intent avid fan of technological gadgets, one is amazed at how technological products continue to make regular updates based on customers’ feedbacks from the last product that was launched. In contemporary times, consumers are provided with opportunities to avail of newer models, upgrades or updates as fast as one year from the time that a newly launched technological gadget was offered for sale in the market. Depending on how consumers reacted and responded, the manufacturer either addresses the weaknesses or incorporates innovative features that could complement and make the upgraded product more attractive to the consumers.

European Expansionism Essay Example for Free

European Expansionism Essay Identify and discuss the factors responsible for European expansionism from the 15th century. What were the social, political and economic effects of this expansionism on Europe, Africa and the Americas? There were three chief factors in the 15th century European expansionism. European nations such as Spain, France, Portugal, Italy, and England sought out to expand to new lands in an effort to spread Christianity, reap economic benefits, and to gain notoriety and respect throughout the world as World leaders. The expansion caused the world to change socially, politically and economically. As a result of many trade routes passing the coasts of Africa, Asia and the Americas, European adventurers began to report their findings and sightings of new lands to the monarchs of their home countries. European countries saw the potential of economic growth and market development in the new lands that they traveled to, so it became necessary for them to establish settlements and ownership in these new lands in order to capitalize on the potential. The Europeans were attracted to the natural, human, and technological resources that these new worlds possessed and knew that obtaining them would give them a new level of control in the world. Europeans would travel to parts of Asia in search of spices in order to flavor and preserve their foods. They explored America after its â€Å"discovery†, by Christopher Columbus, for its vast landscape and potential to build colonies and use the lands natural resources to maintain and run an econom. Africa was first ventured to by Europeans for trade of jewels, gems  and other sought after commodities, but then became targeted for its native people to be used as workers in their new lands. Once Europeans began to take action in moving into these new worlds, it became necessary for them to set up colonies, economic systems, rules, and almost most importantly, religion. Since all law was governed by the church in European countries, the need to establish the same type of system in colonized lands was very important as a form of maintaining control and discipline. Many European conquests throughout the world stemmed from or led to the forcible spread of religion. The method used by Europeans was a sure-fire way to recruit new converts. They would tell the natives of which ever land they were conquering that they had no choice but to convert to Christianity, or else they would be killed as an example for anyone else who refused their new religion. By conquering and exploring new l ands scattered throughout both the eastern and western hemisphere, European powers now had control in every area of the world. The colonies that were set up in the continents outside of Europe were governed by the same laws, language, and principles of those in their home countries. This social change caused regions to adopt new languages, and accept new, usually oppressive, lifestyles. Political systems were added and changed in colonized countries as well. A country that may have had its own ruler within the country or region now had to answer to the law of the country colonizing it. This completely took the power out of the hands of native people, for they had no connection or true knowledge about the form of government they had been forced to live in. In most cases of European expansion, the colonized country was exploited for economic gain. In some cases the countries people were used as enslaved workers for production of goods, while in other cases Europeans would obtain control of the resources that were indigenous to the land in order to trade with other countries as well as have a supply for their home countries. The European expansionism changed the way the world worked up until that time. Though many negative events took place in the expansion, it cau sed the world to become a global marketplace. Looking at the way the world began to change during the expansion of European powers lets us see today how the world and its economy have been shaped by it. What is the Columbian Exchange? Discuss its effects on both sides of the  Atlantic Ocean. The Columbian Exchange (Term coined by historian, Alfred W. Crosby) was a global exchange of goods and ideas between the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) and the New World (America). When Columbus first discovered America, Spain wanted to set up colonies. Columbus found some people that he named â€Å"Indians.† They colonies started to trade with each other, and by doing do, they started the Columbian Exchange. Many countries were involved in this trade, including China, Africa and Italy. This exchange of new ideas, traditions, food, religion and diet changed cultures everywhere. The Native Americans gave and received many items. One of the most important items that the Indians received was horses. Before horses, Indians had no way of carrying heavy loads from place to place. When the Europeans arrived in America, they gave them the horses, and then transporting goods was much easier . The plains Indians also used horses to hunt and herd the buffalo. Another important item was that the Europeans introduced to them were different types of medicine. The Indians already had medicine and healing (herbs) of their own, but the European way was much more effective. In return, the Indians also gave the Europeans some herbal treatments. Europe, Asia, and Africa received many goods, such as sweet potatoes, potatoes and tobacco. Both types of potato influenced many countries diets including China and Ireland. Tobacco was another important addition to Europe and other places in the Old World. Many people loved it. They could chew it, smoke it and snuff it. These who sold the tobacco made a lot of money. Also, many new vegetables from the New World such as tomatoes, peppers and corn went to the Old World and added to people’s diets, which resulted in better health because they received more nutrition and vitamins from the new foods. Along with all the positive things that the Columbian Exchange, there were negative things passed between the two worlds. Europeans diseases came to the New World. Diseases such as typhus, chicken pox, small pox and influenza plagued the Native Americans. Since they had never been exposed to these diseases, most of them were virtually wiped out from the sickness. In Europe, tobacco love was growing and soon it became a problem. Many people were getting sick or dying from starting to make and smoke cigars with the tobacco. Today, America, Asia, Europe, Japan and Africa still trade with each other. Many goods are received, like chocolate. Every country used chocolate in some way. Europeans had used sugar for what  they called â€Å"a cup of chocolate.† So instead out going out for a cup of coffee, they went out for a cup of chocolate. The Indians had coco. They pounded it and then added peppers and put the mix into water and drank it. Chocolate is one of the most popular trade items that are traded today. As you can see, the Columbian trade is still active and important today. Christopher Columbus Columbus was the Italian navigator who is given credit for the discovery of the Americas. He originally set out to find the West Indies, but miscalculated his routing. He is noted as the first person to come in contact with America’s Native People, which he called Indiana because of his misunderstanding of where the West Indies actually was. He completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean which gave him vast information to return to Europe with about America. The voyages, along with his efforts to colonize Hispaniola, led to the Spanish colonization of the New World. The Reconqusita The reconqusita was a 781 year long period in the Iberian peninsula after the original Islamic conquest to the fall of Granada. It began with the battle of Covadonga, where a small army led by Visigothic nobleman Pelagius defeated an Umayyad army in the mountains of Iberia. Captain James Cook James Cook was a British explorer, captain, and navigator. He Joined the British merchant navy and saw action in the Seven Years war. He is noted for making detailed maps of Newfoundland before making several voyages to the Pacific Ocean. While traveling the pacific, he became the first European to contact with the Eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, as well as the first to cricumnavigant New Zealand. The Seven Years War The seven Years War was a war that involved Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines. The war took place between 1754 and1763, with its main years of conflict taking place in the seven year period of 1756 through 1763. The war is known in America as  the French and Indian War. The war was driven by all of the World Powers at the time competing in interests, usually being over trade of colonies or control of territories. Vasco Da Gama Vasco Da Gama was a Portuguese explorer who is famous for being the first European to reach India by sea. This navigation helped Portugal establish a colonial empire in Asia. His newly discovered route meant that the Portuguese would not need to cross the highly disputed and dangerous Mediterrianean and that they would no longer have to travel by land to make it to India.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Revised Blooms Taxonomy Tool

The Revised Blooms Taxonomy Tool For the twenty first century the requirements of kinds of learning is different than previous century. There is a need for all students, not just a select few, to develop their abilities to think, solve problems and become independent learners (Bruer, 1993; CTGV, 1997; Resnick Resnick, 1991). Course objectives or Curriculum consists of the knowledge and skills in subject matter areas that teachers teach and students are supposed to learn (Pallegrino, 2002). Course objectives describe what learners will be able to do after a particular learning experience. Articulated course objectives make students and educators aware of the learning expectations and teaching goals, respectively. For any course, learning objectives should not only list the topics that students will learn, but also the expected cognitive levels for each of the topics. Through instruction teachers apply different methods of teaching and the learning activities to help students master the content and objectives specified by curriculum. By applying summative and formative assessments teachers and learners both able to measure the outcomes of education and the achievement with regard to important competencies. The course objectives, the learning activities and the assessments used to measure the achievement of the intended learning outcomes are intricately related and connected to each other (Cohen, 1987; Wiggins, 1993). An assessment should measure what students are actually being taught and the cognitive level that is being intended to teach in course objectives. If any of the functions is not well synchronized, it will be misleading, or instruction will be ineffective (Pallegrino, 2002). Lack of alignment between course objectives and assessments is a major reason that students adopt a surface approach to learning rather than developing higher order cognitive skills. In an aligned system of instruction teachers needed to identify the appropriate verbs in the objectives and to embed those in the assessment tasks so that judgments can be made about how well a given students level of performance meets the objectives. As the teaching methods and the assessment tasks are accessed the same verbs as are in the objectives, the chances are increased that most students will engage with the appropriate learning activities (Biggs, 1999). There are several methods used to align course objectives and assessments based on the cognitive level. Benjamin S. Bloom was one of the first educators to realize the universality of a finite number of verbs across a variety of subject matters. He has built a framework for categorizing educational objectives in 1956 with the expectation to help to all teachers, administrators, professional specialists, and research worker to deal curricular and evaluation problems, which is widely known as Blooms taxonomy. The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. There are six major categories (Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation) starting from the simplest to the most complex cognition (Bloom, 1956). The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. That is, the first one must be mastered before the next one can take place. Some course objectives might address some verbs (identify, enumerate, describe, list, combine etc.) to develop lower levels of cognition that learners will learn a major ideas or procedure of a subject matter but ignores those verbs (justify, theorize, hy pothesize, reflect etc.) that helps learner to achieve the skills so that they can apply these to solve different problems in relevant domains. Course objectives would refer to at least relational levels of understanding, where learners are not only expected to know facts and information, but also to structure them in forms that by the end of professional training they should be able apply into unseen problems and domains. Blooms Taxonomy Tool has been successfully used in multiple studies to evaluate the cognitive levels of course objectives and of assessments. However, these studies are focused on courses for general stream students and no such evaluation is currently available for students with learning disabilities. The purpose of the current paper is to use the Revised Blooms Taxonomy (Anderson Krathwohl, 2001) Tool to study the alignment between the objective and assessment for courses attended by the students with learning disabilities in High School settings. Students with learning disabilities do not have a hearing or visual impairment, a physical disability, or below average intelligence. However, they demonstrate difficulties in the receptive language (listening, reading), language processing (thinking, conceptualizing, integrating), and expressive language (talking, spelling, writing), mathematical computations, self-esteem and social skills, sequencing, time management etc. By applying Revised Blooms Taxonomy (RBT) on course objectives and assessment the level of cognition can be determined by identifying the verbs and level of knowledge can be determined by identifying nouns used in their objectives and assessments. Verb defines the category and sub-category of the cognitive domain th at students have reached and the noun describes the category of knowledge (factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognitive knowledge) they are being assessed. The overall goal of the project is to better understand the effects of the alignment between the cognitive levels of the course (English, math, and science) objectives designed for the students with learning disabilities at high school level and the assessment questions used to evaluate their performance. The objective of this study is firstly, to apply the Revised Blooms Taxonomy Tools to evaluate the alignment between the stated course objectives and the questions asked for assessment for different competencies of each course, that is the level of each course objectives that have being taught; and the level of cognitive complexity of assessment task that have being used, and secondly, to analyze students grade to investigate the association of Blooms level of an assessment question on their performance, that is the possible positive or negative correlation between level of assessment task to the level of performance will be analyzed and thirdly, to analyze students grade to investigate the impact of variation in assessment objective with course objective at a different Blooms level on students performance. This study may generate data indicative of perfect alignments or possible misalignments between the learning objectives and the assessment procedure in a course designed for the students with learning disabilities. This information will either confirm the existing strength in the design of a course to the teachers or the curriculum coordinators and provide support for sound strategies or on the contrary this information will aware about the possible alignment weaknesses in the design of a course to the teachers or the curriculum coordinators and facilitate the implementation of corrective measures towards the improvement and enrichment the course. Findings from this study will be useful to inform the teacher education programs to make teachers aware of the importance of maintaining curriculum coherence for efficient teaching and effective learning. As Lorin W. Anderson (2002) mentioned that proper curriculum alignment enables teachers to understand the differences in the effects of s chooling on student achievement and poorly aligned curriculum results underestimating the effect of instruction on learning. Furthermore, findings from this study might create an urge to producing an instructors guide to the course objectives with specific examples and active learning activities that can be used in class and aligned exam question banks that could be used for effective assessment purpose. Furthermore, researchers could generate suggestions if any modification is needed in relation to better reflect key principles of learning for students with learning disabilities.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Atkins Diet Essays -- Weight Loss Health Nutrition Papers

The Atkins Diet:Too Good to be True? The American population is fat. What’s worse, we are getting fatter. For many years, a body mass index (BMI) of 27 or more (weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was the standard criteria for being overweight, and a BMI of 30 or more was the criteria for obesity. This meant that more than one third of U.S. adults were overweight. In recent years the criteria has been reduced to a BMI of 25 or more to be considered overweight, with the obesity criteria remaining the same. Now, more than 50% of U.S. adults are classified as being overweight. Interestingly, as the number of overweight individuals skyrockets, so too does the number of various diets that Americans are willing to try in their search for the thin standard that our culture idolizes. One of the most popular, and many claim successful, of the conglomerate of diets is the Atkins protein diet, named after its founder and guru Dr. Robert C. Atkins. With more than six million copies in print, Dr. Atkinsâ €™ New Diet Revolution proclaims to be "the amazing no-hunger weight-loss plan that has helped millions lose weight and keep it off" (Atkins). Sounds great, but what is this diet, and is it too good to be true? How does the diet work? The purpose of the Atkins diet is to change one’s metabolism and lose weight easily by eating foods high in protein and limiting foods high in carbohydrates, which tend to raise blood sugar levels the most. The diet works on the principle of ketosis – the process by which excess, stored body fat (the body’s secondary energy source) is burned, resulting in weight loss. A background understanding of the body’s natural energy system helps to understand Atkins’ rationale. Diets high i... ... National Cholesterol Education Program, and the American Cancer Society who endorse a diet that is composed of 10% to 15% protein, 55% to 60% carbohydrates, and 25% to 30% fat. The entire process of ketosis is suspect, and may cause fatigue, nausea, and lead to dehydration and loss of potassium, which consequently may affect cardiac function. Other less serious symptoms of a ketone-producing diet are general tiredness, abrupt or gradually increasing weakness, dull headache, abdominal pain, increased breathing, nausea and vomiting, and bad breath. A lifestyle consisting of daily exercise and balanced nutrition is one diet that will never go out of style. The weight may not miraculously melt off, as diets such as Atkins claim to happen, but it is more likely that in 5 years you will maintain your weight loss, whatever it is, and you will be healthier in the process.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Capital Punishment :: essays research papers

Capital Punishments Capital punishment is one of the most discussed and argued issue around the world, probably because of it is crucial diversity. The main reason why people have different point of views is based on the cultural, economic, political and social diversity in today’s societies. For example; how is your status in society? Rich people tend to favor the capital punishment, compared to the minorities with poor economic background. Same as Republicans vs. Liberals, Republicans’ tend to have a more positive attitude towards these kind of disciplinary actions compared to the Liberals. The reason why this issue never been solved is because there is no right answer to the question. It’s up to every person to decide what ever they believe is the right or most appropriate penalty for murder. Even the States disagree on this issue. There is an obvious characteristic between the States that favor and disfavor the death penalty. The Southern States tend to favor the penalty compared to the Northern States. There are 37 States that have Capital punishment and 82 % of all executions since 1976 have occurred in Southern States. In New England, only Connecticut still enforces capital punishment. Does it really affect the criminals of the society? Does it really work as a deterrence to commit crimes? Unfortunately the answer is NO. The States who implemented capital punishments have shown no trends of decreased crime rate. In Florida, the murder rates have increased the last three years even though an increases number of people have been executed over the same time period. So, if it not deters crime, why continue to follow the same path. An answer to that is that it still makes people feel more relaxed and secured when they know their State gives the criminals death penalty. The difference between the costs of executing a person compared to give him/her a life time sentence is incredible. The State of Kansas made a survey comparing the costs in 2004, which demonstrated that capital punishment is many times more expensive. For example, the investigation costs are 3 times greater, the trial cost is 16 times greater, the appeal cost is 21 times greater and finally it takes an average of 34 days in a capital punishment trial compared to 9 days in a non-death trial (according to DPIC). As we can see the main factor that brings up the costs for capital punishment is not the execution itself, it is the trial process.

Friday, October 11, 2019

American Architecture

Beaux Arts, French for â€Å"fine arts,† describes a type of American architecture that was popular from 1890 to 1920. They have two roof styles: flat or low-pitched hip roof or a mansard roof. These buildings often feature decorative garlands, floral patterns, or shields on their walls. The facade often has quoins, pilasters, or columns with Ionic or Corinthian capitals, and masonry walls of light-colored and smooth stone. Arched, pedimented windows were common. The first story uses stonework joints that are exaggerated, giving it a rusticated look, although the facade is usually symmetrical.There are several reasons why Beaux Arts style was a dominant choice of public building architecture from 1890 to 1920. Beaux Arts buildings were a popular architecture choice in prosperous urban settings in cities such as Washington, D. C. , New York, Boston, St. Louis and San Francisco, as well as Newport, Rhode Island. They were big, elaborate buildings to build, and their construction one was a way to show off your wealth if you were rich. Beaux Arts buildings were the style of choice for rich American industrial barons, for example.However, when the Great Depression hit in the late 1920s, these large buildings became too costly to build and maintain, and over time several were destroyed. Some have been preserved as public museums, schools, and clubhouses. Another reasons why they were dominant in public building style in America is the French influence. Americans who served in France during World War I saw examples of these buildings and helped make the style popular when they returned home. Americans who studied at France's Ecole des Beaux-Arts, the best architectural school in the world at that time, advocated for this style of building when they returned to America.The Ecole also favored formal planning for the spatial relationships between buildings. This helped drive the American City Beautiful movement, which was popular during this time period. This idea also influenced AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE PAGE 3 the Beaux Arts-style employed by designer Richard Morris Hunt for Chicago's 1893 World Columbian Exposition. After this, other large cities, including Cleveland, Philadelphia and Washington D. C., used these formal design ideas in planning suburbs with massive parks and boulevards that were lined with landmark Beaux Arts-style houses. A further reason why Beaux Arts was a popular architectural choice is their roof's appearance. The mansard roof became popular in attached urban town houses because it reduces the apparent height of the upper-floor living space as compared to other nearby buildings. It also gave the homeowner a full upper story of attic space to use, and so it became popular to use this style of roof in remodeling older buildings as well as for new ones.There were tax implications for this style here as well: in France, where the mansard roof originated, expanding a home ‘s â€Å"footprint† – adding addi tional rooms on the ground and increasing square footage – meant that the owner would be required to pay heavier taxes on the structure. Building â€Å"upward† – expanding square footage vertically rather than horizontally – constituted a â€Å"loophole† which helped the property owner to avoid increased taxation on his home. The Great Depression may have brought an end to the cost feasibility and popularity of these lovely structures.From about 1933 onward, homes that were constructed were smaller, plainer and more utilitarian. Fortunatly for us, but happily several of the old Beaux Arts have been preserved for our enjoyment and study in cities across the country, including San Francisco, Portland Oregon, Chicago and Rochester New in cities across the country, including San Francisco, Portland Oregon, Chicago and Rochester New York. Even in times during which real estate markets fall, classic old homes such as Beaux Arts houses and buildings conti nue to command top prices.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

A. Philip Randolph

As Phillip Randolph was not only an enormously Influential mover and shaker In the Civil Rights Movement In America from the sass's throughout the sass's. His influence went way beyond this period and affected millions within in his lifetime. He was born to Reverend James Williams Randolph who instilled in him the reality that a person's deeds and actions, instead of their race, were what made a man who he was. His mother was a seamstress who taught him that education and self- defense, If necessary were the most important aspects a growing upstanding young an should focus on.In 1907, he graduated from the Conman Institute in East Jacksonville as Valedictorian of his class. W. E. B. Dubbing's persuasive book The Souls of Black Folk became instrumental in directing his life's course. It inspired Randolph to move to New York in 1911, making racial equality amongst all men his most important task to tackle in his lifetime. And he did a mighty fine Job at that. He was married in 1914 to a widow by the name of Mrs.. Lucille Green, a Howard university Graduate and entrepreneur, who shared his political views and earned enough money on her own to support them both.That left much time for him to fight the good fight. They married and joined the Socialist Party where Randolph began amassing large crowds at Harem's Soapbox Corner, speaking about Socialism and the importance of environmental conscientiousness surrounding all races during those times. In 1917, Randolph met a man by the name of Chandler Owen. Other than the meeting of his wife, this was probably the most important cosmic collision of forces amongst two beings during this time period of union university in 1913. He then moved to NYC in 1915.That's where this striking attach-up began, between Randolph and Chandler. They were both Socialists and in August 1917, they established the journal the â€Å"Messenger together. It was a mixture of trade union news, political commentary, biographies of the leading radi cals of the time and literary criticisms. The messenger closed In 1928, At that time Owen moved to Chicago and even though he was still a member of the socialist party he became much more conservative with age. But he continued his support of Randolph in his efforts to organize black workers.In 1929, Randolph became president of the Brotherhood of he Sleeping Car Porters (BPCS), which he victoriously built into the first successful black-trade union. The friendship between Owen and Randolph was a profound and ground-breaking one that continued until the end of their lives. In 1925, a group of Pullman Porters approached Randolph and asked him to lead their new organization called the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BPCS). His primary qualification, as well as his reputation for incorruptibility and the fact that he wasn't an employee who meant the company could not fire him or scare him off.He led them for the next ten years, organizing them to the point, which resulted in the c ertification of the (BPCS) as the exclusive bargaining agent of the Porters in 1935. Randolph called this exclusive bargaining agent deal â€Å"the first victory of Negro workers over a great Insularly corporation†. He Decade ten most widely Known spokesperson for black working class interests in the country. Six years later, President Franklin Roosevelt refused to issue an executive order banning discrimination against black workers in the defense industry.So Randolph allied for â€Å"10,000 loyal Negro American citizens† to march on Washington D. C. In protest of this. Support grew so quickly that soon he was began calling for 100,000 marchers to converge on the capital. Pressed by Randolph actions, President Roosevelt issued an executive order on June 25, 1941 – six days before the march was to occur declaring â€Å"there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color or national orig in. † Roosevelt also set up the Fair Employment Practices Commission to oversee the order.Six years later there was the passage of the Selective Service Act of 1947, Randolph demanded that the government integrate the armed forces Randolph founded The League of Non-violent Civil Obedience Military Segregation and urged young men of all races to â€Å"refuse to cooperate with a Jim Crow conscription service. † Threatened with widespread civil unrest, disobedience, and needing the black vote in his 1948 re-election campaign. Because of this President Harry Truman on July 26, 1948 ordered an end to military discrimination â€Å"as quickly as possible†.